Osh-Tisch, or ‘Finds Them and Kills Them’, was a boté spiritual leader and warrior of the Crow Nation who lived in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Boté was a Crow term referring to an individual possessing a gender identity different to their assigned sex, or to someone who possessed an identity of both male and female characteristics. Boté genders were considered separate to male or female genders and were distinct identities in their own right, a concept common to Native American societies and now sometimes captured under the modern umbrella term ‘Two Spirit’ (see this link for more info).
Osh-Tisch was a male-assigned-at-birth boté who lived as a woman and expressed a preference for women’s work. In her life she took on a number of roles including artist, medicine woman, shaman and warrior. She was also a skilled craftswoman who made intricate leather goods and large tipis, and is known to have constructed the huge buffalo-skin lodge of the Crow Chief Iron Bull. 
According to the testimony of Pretty Shield, Osh-Tisch fought at the Battle of the Rosebud in 1876, where the Crow fought as part of a US-led coalition against the Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne. When a wounded Crow warrior fell from his horse, Osh-Tisch leapt from her own horse and defended the fallen man with a salvo of rifle shots. At the same time a woman warrior named The Other Magpie was attacking the Lakota with a coup stick. Moments after The Other Magpie struck a Lakota with the coup stick he was killed by Osh-Tisch’s bullet, leading to her gaining the epithet of ‘Finds Them and Kills Them’.
By the 1890s the Crows had been forced into living in reservations by the US government. During this time Osh-Tisch and two other boté were targeted by an agent of the Bureau of Indian Affairs named Briskow, who had them imprisoned, their hair cut, and forced them to wear men’s clothing. The Crow rallied to the protection of the boté and Chief Pretty Eagle used what little power he had to have Briskow removed from the reservation. Osh-Tisch’s friend and Crow historian Joe Medicine Crow later described this attack on the boté as a ‘tragedy’.
Osh-Tisch continued to be targeted by preachers and other managers of the reservation for the rest of her life. Along with the gradual internalisation of United States cultural norms, this persecution led to a shift away from boté acceptance among the Crow and Osh-Tisch ultimately died in 1929 as one of the last of her kind.

(This post inspired by the Rejected Princesses article on Osh-Tisch: http://www.rejectedprincesses.com/post/92639871808/osh-tisch-princess-of-two-spirits-1854-1929)

Osh-Tisch, or ‘Finds Them and Kills Them’, was a boté spiritual leader and warrior of the Crow Nation who lived in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Boté was a Crow term referring to an individual possessing a gender identity different to their assigned sex, or to someone who possessed an identity of both male and female characteristics. Boté genders were considered separate to male or female genders and were distinct identities in their own right, a concept common to Native American societies and now sometimes captured under the modern umbrella term ‘Two Spirit’ (see this link for more info).

Osh-Tisch was a male-assigned-at-birth boté who lived as a woman and expressed a preference for women’s work. In her life she took on a number of roles including artist, medicine woman, shaman and warrior. She was also a skilled craftswoman who made intricate leather goods and large tipis, and is known to have constructed the huge buffalo-skin lodge of the Crow Chief Iron Bull. 

According to the testimony of Pretty Shield, Osh-Tisch fought at the Battle of the Rosebud in 1876, where the Crow fought as part of a US-led coalition against the Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne. When a wounded Crow warrior fell from his horse, Osh-Tisch leapt from her own horse and defended the fallen man with a salvo of rifle shots. At the same time a woman warrior named The Other Magpie was attacking the Lakota with a coup stick. Moments after The Other Magpie struck a Lakota with the coup stick he was killed by Osh-Tisch’s bullet, leading to her gaining the epithet of ‘Finds Them and Kills Them’.

By the 1890s the Crows had been forced into living in reservations by the US government. During this time Osh-Tisch and two other boté were targeted by an agent of the Bureau of Indian Affairs named Briskow, who had them imprisoned, their hair cut, and forced them to wear men’s clothing. The Crow rallied to the protection of the boté and Chief Pretty Eagle used what little power he had to have Briskow removed from the reservation. Osh-Tisch’s friend and Crow historian Joe Medicine Crow later described this attack on the boté as a ‘tragedy’.

Osh-Tisch continued to be targeted by preachers and other managers of the reservation for the rest of her life. Along with the gradual internalisation of United States cultural norms, this persecution led to a shift away from boté acceptance among the Crow and Osh-Tisch ultimately died in 1929 as one of the last of her kind.

(This post inspired by the Rejected Princesses article on Osh-Tisch: http://www.rejectedprincesses.com/post/92639871808/osh-tisch-princess-of-two-spirits-1854-1929)

Anonymous asked:

Do you have more information on the Congolese female para-commando during jump training at capital Leopoldville in 1967? Books titles? I can only find on wiki "The Democratic Republic of the Congo began training an initial 150 women as para-commandos in 1967 and many more were trained subsequently, over a period of several years at least. The women did receive complete jump training as well as weapons training although it is unclear to what extent they were actually integrated into the combat"

Thank you for your question. I’m sorry to say I have very little more information on the subject to report besides what you have already found. As is sadly often the case, little to no information about these women and their military careers seems to have been recorded.

What little I can find is as follows. The original source of the image is from Le Patriote Illustré, a now defunct Belgian magazine, dated 26 Nov 1967 (source: http://bit.ly/Zfto9r ), but no further information is given.

There are a few other photos archived on the internet supporting the existence of female Congolese paratroopers in the late 1960s:

1: http://collections.si.edu/search/results.htm?q=record_ID:siris_arc_112792

2: http://siris-archives.si.edu/ipac20/ipac.jsp?uri=full=3100001~!121711!0

The photographer’s notes for these images make reference to the paratrooper units being Israeli-trained but offer no other information.

On page 16 of the book 'Great Lakes Holocaust: First Congo War' by Tom Cooper, another photo of female paratroopers is shown, labelled 'Female Paratroopers of the Israeli-trained 12th Airborne Battalion (later 312th Para Batallion)’. See: http://bit.ly/1weL6Vs

Unfortunately there my research runs dry. If you or anyone finds any further information on these paratroopers I would love to hear about it. All the best.

Phoebe Hessel was a British soldier and local legend who lived in the 18th and 19th centuries. 
Raised in Stepney, London, Hessel fell in love with a soldier named Samuel Golding when she was 15 years old and disguised herself as a man so that she could join the army to accompany him. She became a member of the 5th Regiment of Foot with Golding and served in the West Indies and Gibraltar. The two remained together in the British army for 17 years.
In 1745 she fought against the French in the Battle of Fontenoy where she received a bayonet wound to the arm. Eventually she revealed herself as a woman, although accounts vary as to whether this occurred when she was stripped to be whipped as a punishment, or if she did so voluntarily in order to stay with Golding when he was wounded. She was not disciplined for her deception and paid the same amount as any soldier leaving the army.
She and Golding remained married for twenty years in Plymouth until his death, after which she remarried and moved to Brighton, where she became a well-known local figure and traveling saleswoman. She died in 1821 at the impressive age of 108. In her native Stepney both Hessel Street and Amazon Street are named after her, the latter due to her nickname as the ‘Stepney Amazon’.

Phoebe Hessel was a British soldier and local legend who lived in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Raised in Stepney, London, Hessel fell in love with a soldier named Samuel Golding when she was 15 years old and disguised herself as a man so that she could join the army to accompany him. She became a member of the 5th Regiment of Foot with Golding and served in the West Indies and Gibraltar. The two remained together in the British army for 17 years.

In 1745 she fought against the French in the Battle of Fontenoy where she received a bayonet wound to the arm. Eventually she revealed herself as a woman, although accounts vary as to whether this occurred when she was stripped to be whipped as a punishment, or if she did so voluntarily in order to stay with Golding when he was wounded. She was not disciplined for her deception and paid the same amount as any soldier leaving the army.

She and Golding remained married for twenty years in Plymouth until his death, after which she remarried and moved to Brighton, where she became a well-known local figure and traveling saleswoman. She died in 1821 at the impressive age of 108. In her native Stepney both Hessel Street and Amazon Street are named after her, the latter due to her nickname as the ‘Stepney Amazon’.

Mandukhai Khatun was empress of the Northern Yuan Dynasty (also known as Post-Imperial Mongolia) during the late 15th century. Khatun is the female honorific equivalent to Khan, meaning ‘military ruler’.
Sole daughter of an aristocratic Ongud family, Mandukhai was married at the age of 18 to Manduul Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire. She bore one daughter to Manduul, increasing her seniority over his other childless wife. However when Manduul was assassinated in 1479 the empire was left with no recognised heir. Mandukhai then adopted the 7-year-old orphan Batmunkh, the last living descendant of the legendary Genghis Khan. Mandukhai named Batmunkh as “Dayan Khan” and through him became effective ruler of the Mongolian empire. 
Under Mandhukai’s leadership the empire went to war with the the Oirats in Western Mongolia and defeated them to great acclaim. In doing so she united the warring Mongolian tribes and instituted a number of codes to enforce the Oirat’s loyalty.
Mandukhai refused the marriage offer of one of her generals and instead married Dayan Khan when he reached the age of 19. Together the two led raids against Ming China in response to Chinese attempts to strangle the Mongols by closing trade. To contain her, the Chinese expanded the Great Wall and deployed gunpowder artillery, but this did not deter the raiding. The pair also had to contend with an Oirat rebellion, during which Mandukhai fought in the battles personally, even though she was pregnant with twins. 
Mandukhai died in 1510 of natural causes according to most sources, although some legends claim she was murdered by Ming agents. In her life she bore seven sons and three daughters, and it was from her line that successive khans and nobles of Mongolia were descended.

Mandukhai Khatun was empress of the Northern Yuan Dynasty (also known as Post-Imperial Mongolia) during the late 15th century. Khatun is the female honorific equivalent to Khan, meaning ‘military ruler’.

Sole daughter of an aristocratic Ongud family, Mandukhai was married at the age of 18 to Manduul Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire. She bore one daughter to Manduul, increasing her seniority over his other childless wife. However when Manduul was assassinated in 1479 the empire was left with no recognised heir. Mandukhai then adopted the 7-year-old orphan Batmunkh, the last living descendant of the legendary Genghis Khan. Mandukhai named Batmunkh as “Dayan Khan” and through him became effective ruler of the Mongolian empire. 

Under Mandhukai’s leadership the empire went to war with the the Oirats in Western Mongolia and defeated them to great acclaim. In doing so she united the warring Mongolian tribes and instituted a number of codes to enforce the Oirat’s loyalty.

Mandukhai refused the marriage offer of one of her generals and instead married Dayan Khan when he reached the age of 19. Together the two led raids against Ming China in response to Chinese attempts to strangle the Mongols by closing trade. To contain her, the Chinese expanded the Great Wall and deployed gunpowder artillery, but this did not deter the raiding. The pair also had to contend with an Oirat rebellion, during which Mandukhai fought in the battles personally, even though she was pregnant with twins. 

Mandukhai died in 1510 of natural causes according to most sources, although some legends claim she was murdered by Ming agents. In her life she bore seven sons and three daughters, and it was from her line that successive khans and nobles of Mongolia were descended.

A 700-strong all-female unit of Peshmerga Kurdish militia are currently involved in fighting the Islamic State in Northern Iraq and have been instrumental in securing the Kurdistan region.

The unit was created in 1996 in order to help combat Saddam Hussein loyalists. Since that time they have predominantly existed in a supporting combat role but have recently been used on the front lines at Kirkuk and securing oil fields in Bai Hassan.

The majority of the women are volunteers and have been trained alongside SWAT teams and special forces units. They are led by Colonel Nahida Ahmed Rashid, who began her military career fighting for the Kurdish separatist movement as a teenager and is now the highest-ranking female officer in the Kurdish army.

Some Western media outlets have framed the use of female soldiers as terrifying to the forces of the Islamic State and that they find it dishonourable to be killed by women. However others have pointed out that the IS and al-Qaeda field their own all-female battalions.

A BBC correspondent followed the Peshmerga women was impressed by their motivation to protect other women who have been victims of the IS forces. She also described the support they received from their families and community. “People know that they’re fighting a very, very tough fight,” she said. “But also, in a way, they know that these are pioneers, not just in Kurdistan, but in the region.”

News Sources:

http://www.pri.org/stories/2014-07-16/kurdish-iraq-fight-against-isis-isnt-just-men

http://www.pri.org/stories/2014-08-07/meet-female-colonel-leading-kurdish-forces-battle-against-isis

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-28308632

mtrtenebrarum
diannefeinsteinvevo:

14 year old Yazidi girl returns home with AK
12/08/2014 — Sinjar mountains, Iraq — Runak Bapir Gherib, 14 y.o. from Shengar makes her way down the mountain after 7 days. She is with her mother and sister (in the back) waiting for a car to drive them away. She took the gun from Shengar to protect her family. YPG also gave weapons to the people who wanted to fight, but it has been impossible to verify whether this weapon was given to her by YPG or family members.

diannefeinsteinvevo:

14 year old Yazidi girl returns home with AK

12/08/2014 — Sinjar mountains, Iraq — Runak Bapir Gherib, 14 y.o. from Shengar makes her way down the mountain after 7 days. She is with her mother and sister (in the back) waiting for a car to drive them away. She took the gun from Shengar to protect her family. YPG also gave weapons to the people who wanted to fight, but it has been impossible to verify whether this weapon was given to her by YPG or family members.

Milunka Savić was a Serbian soldier who fought in the Balkan Wars and in World War I. She was wounded no less than nine times during her service and is the most-decorated female combatant in the history of warfare.
In 1912, when she was aged 24, Savić’s brother was called up to serve in the Balkan Wars against Bulgaria. Accounts vary as to whether she impersonated her brother or simply accompanied him, but it is certain that she joined the Serbian army having disguised herself as a man. She saw combat within weeks and was awarded with a medal and a promotion for taking part in repeated assaults during the nine-day Battle of Bregalnica.
During the tenth assault she was wounded by a Bulgarian grenade and while being treated in hospital her gender was revealed. Unwilling to punish her given her valour on the battlefield, her commanding officer offered Savić a transfer to a nursing division. Standing at attention Savić insisted she would only fight for her country as a combatant. When the officer told her he would give her his answer the next day Savić simply responded “I will wait” and remained standing at attention in front of him. He relented after just an hour and allowed her to return to the infantry. 
Just a year after the end of the Balkan Wars Europe was torn apart by World War I and Savić continued to serve her country. Following the Battle of Kolubara in the early days of the war, she was awarded the Karađorđe Star with Swords medal, the highest award available. She received the medal a second time in 1916 after she single-handedly captured 23 Bulgarian soldiers at the Battle of Crna Bend. The war progressed poorly for Serbia, and Savić found herself fighting for the French as the retreating Serbian army was reformed under their control at Corfu. By the end of the war she had received medals from France, Russia and Britain for her bravery.
After the war Savić turned down a military pension in France to return to Serbia where she raised her daughter and a number of foster children on her own. Largely forgotten by the public, she made a living by working as a cleaning lady. During the German occupation of Serbia in World War II she was imprisoned in the Banjica concentration camp. Accounts vary as to whether this was because she refused to attend a banquet with German officers or because she was operating a hospital to treat wounded partisans. She was ultimately spared execution and released by a German officer who recognised her as a war hero.
Savić died of a stroke in 1973, aged 84. She was buried with full military honours and a street in Belgrade is named after her.

Milunka Savić was a Serbian soldier who fought in the Balkan Wars and in World War I. She was wounded no less than nine times during her service and is the most-decorated female combatant in the history of warfare.

In 1912, when she was aged 24, Savić’s brother was called up to serve in the Balkan Wars against Bulgaria. Accounts vary as to whether she impersonated her brother or simply accompanied him, but it is certain that she joined the Serbian army having disguised herself as a man. She saw combat within weeks and was awarded with a medal and a promotion for taking part in repeated assaults during the nine-day Battle of Bregalnica.

During the tenth assault she was wounded by a Bulgarian grenade and while being treated in hospital her gender was revealed. Unwilling to punish her given her valour on the battlefield, her commanding officer offered Savić a transfer to a nursing division. Standing at attention Savić insisted she would only fight for her country as a combatant. When the officer told her he would give her his answer the next day Savić simply responded “I will wait” and remained standing at attention in front of him. He relented after just an hour and allowed her to return to the infantry.

Just a year after the end of the Balkan Wars Europe was torn apart by World War I and Savić continued to serve her country. Following the Battle of Kolubara in the early days of the war, she was awarded the Karađorđe Star with Swords medal, the highest award available. She received the medal a second time in 1916 after she single-handedly captured 23 Bulgarian soldiers at the Battle of Crna Bend. The war progressed poorly for Serbia, and Savić found herself fighting for the French as the retreating Serbian army was reformed under their control at Corfu. By the end of the war she had received medals from France, Russia and Britain for her bravery.

After the war Savić turned down a military pension in France to return to Serbia where she raised her daughter and a number of foster children on her own. Largely forgotten by the public, she made a living by working as a cleaning lady. During the German occupation of Serbia in World War II she was imprisoned in the Banjica concentration camp. Accounts vary as to whether this was because she refused to attend a banquet with German officers or because she was operating a hospital to treat wounded partisans. She was ultimately spared execution and released by a German officer who recognised her as a war hero.

Savić died of a stroke in 1973, aged 84. She was buried with full military honours and a street in Belgrade is named after her.

Tamara Bunke, also commonly known as Tania the Guerrillera, was an Argentine-born German communist revolutionary who played a key role in the post-revolutionary Cuban government and in other Latin American revolutionary movements during the 1960s.
Raised in Buenos Aires by a family of expatriate German communists, Bunke grew up surrounded by the Argentine Communist Party as well as being a keen athlete and intelligent student. In 1952 the family returned to East Berlin where she studied political science and acted as a translator for the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. In this capacity she met the hero of the Cuban Revolution, Che Guevara, when she was assigned to be his interpreter.
Inspired by the revolution, Bunke moved to Cuba in 1961, quickly graduating from voluntary work to a range of high-profile tasks in the militia, the Cuban Literacy Campaign and a number of government departments. She was later selected to take part in “Operation Fantasma”, Guevara’s guerrilla expedition to Bolivia aimed at sparking revolutionary uprising across Latin America.
The only woman in the operation, Bunke was trained in the use of knives, pistols and submachine guns, as well as the transmission of coded radio messages. Styling herself as ‘Tania’, she quickly impressed her superiors with her intelligence, stamina and skill for espionage. In 1964 she served as secret agent, infiltrating Bolivian high society so successfully that she became a personal friend of the Bolivian President. In this role she became an invaluable source of information for Guevara for two years.
However late in 1966 Bunke’s cover was blown due to a failure of the spy network, forcing her to join Guevara’s armed guerrilla campaign in the mountains. It is rumoured but unconfirmed that during this time she and Guevara became lovers. She became responsible for monitoring radio communications but without access to her previous information sources the operation became increasingly isolated and desperate.
Injured in the leg and suffering a high fever, Bunke was included in a group of 17 ailing combatants that Guevara tried to send safely out of the mountains. The group was ambushed by the Bolivian army while crossing the Río Grande river and Bunke was shot while wading through high water with her rifle above her head. On hearing the news of her death Guevara initially refused to believe that such a thing was possible. She was later declared a hero of the Cuban Revolution.

Tamara Bunke, also commonly known as Tania the Guerrillera, was an Argentine-born German communist revolutionary who played a key role in the post-revolutionary Cuban government and in other Latin American revolutionary movements during the 1960s.

Raised in Buenos Aires by a family of expatriate German communists, Bunke grew up surrounded by the Argentine Communist Party as well as being a keen athlete and intelligent student. In 1952 the family returned to East Berlin where she studied political science and acted as a translator for the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. In this capacity she met the hero of the Cuban Revolution, Che Guevara, when she was assigned to be his interpreter.

Inspired by the revolution, Bunke moved to Cuba in 1961, quickly graduating from voluntary work to a range of high-profile tasks in the militia, the Cuban Literacy Campaign and a number of government departments. She was later selected to take part in “Operation Fantasma”, Guevara’s guerrilla expedition to Bolivia aimed at sparking revolutionary uprising across Latin America.

The only woman in the operation, Bunke was trained in the use of knives, pistols and submachine guns, as well as the transmission of coded radio messages. Styling herself as ‘Tania’, she quickly impressed her superiors with her intelligence, stamina and skill for espionage. In 1964 she served as secret agent, infiltrating Bolivian high society so successfully that she became a personal friend of the Bolivian President. In this role she became an invaluable source of information for Guevara for two years.

However late in 1966 Bunke’s cover was blown due to a failure of the spy network, forcing her to join Guevara’s armed guerrilla campaign in the mountains. It is rumoured but unconfirmed that during this time she and Guevara became lovers. She became responsible for monitoring radio communications but without access to her previous information sources the operation became increasingly isolated and desperate.

Injured in the leg and suffering a high fever, Bunke was included in a group of 17 ailing combatants that Guevara tried to send safely out of the mountains. The group was ambushed by the Bolivian army while crossing the Río Grande river and Bunke was shot while wading through high water with her rifle above her head. On hearing the news of her death Guevara initially refused to believe that such a thing was possible. She was later declared a hero of the Cuban Revolution.